The purpose of this study was to compare the retention of complete dentures made by using different impression techniques like conventional, admixed, all green, and functional techniques. Keywords: Impression technique, Ocular prosthesis, Maxillo-facial prosthesis, Body temperature wax. Vig RG. Influence of glycemic control on survival of zygomatic implants in relation with type-2 diabetes mellitus: 10 years’ follow-up results, Role of probiotics for the treatment of peri-implant mucositis in patients with and without type-2 diabetes mellitus. The accuracy and fidelity of these impressions is excellent. The dentist adjusts it in the mouth and places the fluid material inside the custom tray. His technique consisted of making a mucostatic impression of the edentulous ridges followed by a pick-up impression with digital compression of the first through holes prepared on the impression stock tray. (a) Intraoral view of ball abutment transfer components in the mandible. Impression materials: rigid or elastic impression materials: putty silicones, alginate, plaster etc. Dr. Click to edit Master subtitle style Dalaya M V. 4/28/12 Introduction. Mucocompressive Impression (Carole Jones) Records the oral tissues in a functional and displaced form. This technique requires only one step and, in most cases, uses a single impression material. Pour the impression with Type IV stone (Begostone, Bego Dental). 2. borders are trimmed away and oroplastic material is placed 2mm width and height approximately 3. at mouth temperature functional movements are performed 3-4 times These techniques have been classified by different authors as functional, mucostatic, mucocompressive, selective pressure, minimal pressure etc. Partials do not provide complete details but they are quicker and easier to make. A functional impression technique for an implant-supported overdenture: a clinical report. AU - Haney, Stephan J. During static impressions, no functional movements are performed. A functional impression is created by applying a functional impression material to the fitting surface of an existing denture. This device can be indicated to develop functional impressions for complete dentures using the patient-conducted muscular motion technique. Tavano KTA, Seraidarian PI, de Oliveira DD, Jansen WC. The goal of the FC technique is to ensure uniform equilibration of support for the denture by loading the entire stress-bearing area. Functional impression (also known as secondary impression) Neutral zone impression; Window technique; Altered cast technique; Applegate technique; Impression for provision of fixed prosthesis. Method: Specimens of … Many physicians prefer to utilize the complete impression even for simple dental crowns. • It is the shape of the ridge before functional load is applied. If no essential details are located on this arch (details that are important for the design of the restoration), the one-step technique is accurate enough. This comprehensive guide deals with all the important aspects of implant dentistry ...more, Over years, numerous studies have shown that the bacteria responsible for causing gum diseases might also be able to cause certain types of cancer. The Principles of Functional and Mucostatic Impressions for Complete Denture Bases: A Review In addition to needing to be hygienic and biocompatible, the base of a complete denture (CD) should provide intimate adaptation to the mucosa of a ridge. 1964; 14:214–220. (a) Impression of edentulous areas with zinc oxide eugenol paste. The custom tray is sent back to the dental office. Dental implants, the complete patient's guide, first of all, the type of restoration that will be manufactured, the clinical expertise of each practitioner; each physician has a preferred set of impression techniques. It is possible to make a functional impression without finger pressure for implant-retained overdentures by using cap attachments. Delivery of the prosthesis constructed with this impression technique results in a decrease in postinsertion appliance adjustments. Basically, it forms a tray (or a container) for the fluid material that is used in the second stage. If he is showing any of the symptoms mentioned below, it’s time for that visit to the orthodontist ...more, Today, dental implants are the state-of-the-art tooth replacement systems and are now more common than ever before. A stock impression tray that accurately fits the dental arch is selected. This way, the edges of the impression are actively shaped by the patient. Modified functional impression technique for complete dentures. The history of complete denture impression procedures has been influenced largely by the development of impression materials from which new techniques and ideas arose. The functional techniques using z o, rubberThe functional techniques using z o, rubber or fluid waxor fluid wax 5. In the second variation, the upper teeth, the lower teeth and bite registration are captured on the same impression. The literature reports about many different techniques of anatomical and functional impressions, as well as about different types of impression materials – from dental stones, zinc oxide eugenol pastes and thermoplastic materials to reversible hydrocolloids and elastomers. The process runs similar to the one-step technique. 7.Combinated impression technique with ZnO-eugenol and Oroplastic impression material Upper secondary impression: 1.static impression with ZnO eugenol paste. Softone™ Resilient Denture Acrylic Treatment, Functional Impression Material Softone™ is a reliable tissue conditioner and functional impression material that restores, conditions, massages, and rehabilitates damaged tissue before a new denture rebase or final reline. Does your child need braces? Subject: An Alternate Pressure-Free Functional Impression Technique for Implant-Retained Overdentures, (Optional message may have a maximum of 1000 characters.). Recipient(s) will receive an email with a link to 'An Alternate Pressure-Free Functional Impression Technique for Implant-Retained Overdentures' and will not need an account to access the content. The main advantage of this technique is it provides an accurate relationship of implant components to supporting tissues without finger pressure. This particular tray is called individual tray or custom tray and can be made of different plastic or composite materials. The technique is widely utilized because of its high precision and fidelity. For this purpose, impressions must record the soft tissue supporting areas simultaneously with accurate registration of the implant components. Read to learn more ...more, A complete impression captures all teeth and surrounding tissues inside the mouth cavity, This technique requires only one step and, in most cases, uses a single impression material, The procedure requires two steps and uses two distinct impression materials, one for each stage, The custom tray technique is a particular variation of the two-step technique that involves the participation of the dental lab, During the functional impression, the patient, helped by the dentist, performs certain movements of the cheeks, tongue or lips that try to imitate the movements during the functional processes: mastication and speech. Herein, a functional ocular impression technique is presented to achieve a better fit of the prosthesis to the defect area. For implant-retained overdentures to be successful, functional loads must be distributed optimally to the mucosa and the abutments. Before the second impression, many practitioners prefer to place a retraction cord on the gum lines around the prepared teeth. The impression is washed and sent to the dental laboratory. The step-by-step procedure for this alternative functional impression technique is as follows: Replace healing caps (Zimmer Dental Inc, San Diego, Calif) on the osseointegrated dental implants with ball abutments (Zimmer Dental). The impression is then repositioned over the dental arch. 3, 4, 5, 6 Among them, McLean's overimpression technique employs a custom tray for the edentulous area. An alternative impression technique for implant-retained overdentures. To meet this objective, the pressure is selectively applied to distinguish the different tissue characteristics and maximize the support by displacing the loosely attached mucosa. Background: The accuracy of the final prosthesis is affected by the final impression technique and master cast production. Fabricate an acrylic custom tray (Heraeus Kulzer) (Figure 1b) and place the custom tray on the ball abutments in the mouth; check the relationship of soft tissues. The tray is repositioned and pressed on the dental arch until it reaches the final position. After setting, the fluid material usually gains an elastic consistency. Overdenture treatment provides an esthetic and functional result that allows proper access for hygiene and maintenance. In the first stage, the dentist makes an impression with a rigid material. The cord will temporarily retract the gum from the tooth, allowing the fluid impression material to capture an accurate representation of the tooth preparation (which goes slightly below the gum). Extended dental bridges, full ceramic or zirconium prostheses. The described method is technique sensitive and requires parallel placement of cap attachments. Functional impression technique. The technique aimed at creating an extremely accurate impression of undisturbed and uncompressed tissues. Additionally, it is more time consuming compared with single-stage impression procedures for overdentures. This technique aims to combine cosmetic excellence with comfort for greater benefit to the patient. The procedure requires two steps and uses two distinct impression materials, one for each stage. For this impression technique, aselectively relieved acrylic individual4/28/12Free flowing zinc oxide impressionmaterial is used to make animpression in the tray over the distalextension base onlyThe patient applies steady bitingforces during setting of theimpressionThen an overall hydrocolloidimpression of the dental arch ismade with a full arch tray, while thefirst impression is held … This article describes an alternative functional impression technique that can be used to fabricate implant-retained mandibular overdenture reinforcement with metal framework. PY - 2010/4. ANATOMIC FORM • The surface of the residual ridge at rest. Place cap attachments (Zimmer Dental) parallel on ball abutments with paraskop (Bego, Bego Dental, Bremen, Germany). Y1 - 2010/4. During the functional impression, the patient, helped by the dentist, performs certain movements of the cheeks, tongue or lips that try to imitate the movements during the functional processes: mastication and speech. Impression materials: a rigid impression material for the first step and a fluid material for the second step. The combination of putty and fluid silicones can be a good choice. Some restorations supported by dental implants, two-step technique impression rigid material with blue fluid material with red prepared teeth with arrows. Place ball abutment analogues (Zimmer Dental) into cap attachments (Figure 2b). During the functional impression, the patient, helped by the dentist, performs certain movements of the cheeks, tongue or lips that try to imitate the movements during the functional processes: mastication and speech. The technique that will be selected for a particular situation may depend on different factors: It is very difficult to make a thorough classification of dental impressions. the fluid material is placed in the rigid impression material container, the impression after the fluid material sets. In the first stage, the practitioner makes a preliminary impression with a rigid or elastic material using the one-step technique. N2 - Tissue conditioners are used with great success in dentistry as functional impression materials for rebasing removable prostheses. Bulent Uludag; An Alternate Pressure-Free Functional Impression Technique for Implant-Retained Overdentures. McLean's overimpression technique, the altered cast impression technique, and Applegate's fluid wax impression technique are examples of functional impression techniques. 7 Signs That Determine Your Child Needs To See An Orthodontist Now! Three types of impression techniques have been described in the literature.3 A single-stage impression procedure is commonly used with an open or closed tray technique.4,5 A double-impression technique for overdentures retained by only 2 implants has been suggested, using a zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) impression paste and polyether impression material.6 The third type of impression technique is a functional impression technique for implant-retained overdentures.3,7 All of these techniques require operator finger pressure. Search for other works by this author on: One clinical visit for a multiple implant restoration master cast fabrication. After material sets, the impression becomes hard and solid. T1 - Functional impressions for complete denture fabrication. The partial impression captures only a part (segment) of the oral cavity, namely the part where the prosthetic reconstruction is designed. This technique is described through the following steps . AU - Mansueto, Michael. Dental crowns or fixed bridges when there is no need for any functional movements. After the material sets, the tray is removed and sent back to the dental lab. 1 Functional impression technique records the alveolar mucosa in a functional state and simultaneously records the implant components in relation to the alveolar tissues. Border mold this impression tray with plastic impression compound (Impression Compound, Kerr Italia SpA, Salerno, Italy). After the material sets, the impression is sent to the dental laboratory. Verification jig for implant-supported prostheses: a comparison of standard impressions with verification jigs made of different materials. Various techniques may be used to perform complete impressions: one-step technique, two-step technique, custom tray technique etc. The characteristics of functional impression techniques have not been widely investigated (14-16). A modified chew-in and functional impression technique. Gerodontology. Implant supported restorations, extended dental bridges, complete removable dentures, removable partial dentures. According to several factors, here is a possible and logical classification: A complete impression captures all teeth and surrounding tissues inside the mouth cavity. The functional manipulation cannot be used routinely not all patients can truly move the impression materials as needed, some may use extreme movements and others use. 13. This way, the edges of the impression are actively shaped by the patient. Department of Prosthodontics, Ankara University, Besevler, Turkey. Take the cast metal framework (Wironium, Bego Dental) and combine cap attachments with a self-curing acrylic resin (Meliodent, Heraeus Kulzer). There are various types of dental impressions. The fidelity of the reproduction is outstanding. The impression of the opposite arch: these are the teeth opposite to the designed restoration. On this cast, the technician manufactures an impression tray that fits the dental arch as accurately as possible. The results showed that there was significant difference in retention between the six techniques where functional technique showed the hi… Pour the mandibular cast with dental stone (Moldano, HeraeusKulzer GmbH, Hanau, Germany). Functional impression methods are not commonly considered, however, for the fabrication of new dentures despite their popularity and ease of use. When removable dentures or other large restorations are designed, it is very important to know how much the margins of these restorations can extend. An overdenture impression must record the soft tissue supporting areas simultaneously with accurate positioning of the implant components. Impressions for case studies: these are used if complex reconstructions are designed or very high aesthetic is demanded. Determination of vertical dimension of occlusion in dentate patients by cephalometric analysis-pilot study. The orientation of the occlusal surface to the underlying tissue surface is captured with a reline jig or denture flask and transferred to the new denture base in what is called a "jump" in laboratory jargon. This way, the edges of the impression are actively shaped by the patient. They can be used in almost any clinical situation and, because of the detailed information, complete dental impressions are widely preferred by dental practitioners. More such impressions can be taken for a single case. J Oral Implantol 1 June 2010; 36 (3): 205–207. The custom tray technique is a particular variation of the two-step technique that involves the participation of the dental lab. Any other clinical situation that requires a highly precise impression. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the functional impression technique with various impression materials on the surface characteristic of dental stone casts and their clinical effect on the retention of complete dentures. This article describes a modified jump technique for remaking complete dentures. However, this impression method is technique sensitive for providing a perfect border relationship with various impression materials. In the rebase procedure, a functional impression is made in an existing denture to create a master cast. Alternate functional impression technique for implantretained overdentures. The ridge form may differ under function than when at rest because of the compressibility of mucosa. Malachias A(1), Paranhos Hde F, da Silva CH, Muglia VA, Moreto C. Author information: (1)Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to, https://doi.org/10.1563/AAID-JOI-D-09-00036, Evaluation of Different Osteotomy Drilling Speed Protocols on Cortical Bone Temperature, Implant Stability and Bone Healing: An Experimental  Animal Study, Implant site preparation application of injectable platelet-rich fibrin for vertical and horizontal bone regeneration: A clinical report. There are numerous techniques for the capture of final impressions in the edentulous arch to be considered.4,5 In theauthor’s experience, the most accurate is the functional impression. These impressions are used by the dental technician to fabricate the custom tray. The dental technician pours gypsum into the impression to obtain a dental cast. These impressions allow the practitioners to study various details before the preparation begins and compare them in different stages of the clinical case. Take the impression of the alveolar mucosa with a ZOE impression paste (Cavex Outline, Cavex Holland BV, Haarlem, The Netherlands) (Figure 2a) without finger pressure. in various parts of the world impression techniques may differ a lot. Usually, finger pressure is used to make functional impressions. (b) Definitive impression of the mandible. Otherwise, the probability of obtaining an erroneus impression increases. Impression materials: fluid impression materials: fluid silicones, polyether etc. A functional impression technique is described for the fabrication of an implant-supported overdenture. The metal framework is made according to a full arch anatomic impression. Partial impressions can be taken in partial coverage trays, designed to fit over several teeth, or without trays. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the functional impression technique with various impression materials on the surface characteristic of dental stone casts and their clinical effect on the retention of complete dentures. Obtain a preliminary impression of the mandibular arch with irreversible hydrocolloid (CA 37, Cavex Holland BV, Haarlem, The Netherlands) with a stock tray. For the second impression, the fluid material is placed inside the rigid material formed tray. J Prosthet Dent. doi: https://doi.org/10.1563/AAID-JOI-D-09-00036. A technique for the functional impression and master cast fabrication to fabricate an implant-retained auricular prosthesis is described. (b) Intaglio surface of acrylic custom tray. A partial impression may utilize the one-step or the two-step technique. Place ball abutment transfers (Zimmer Dental) on the ball abutments (Figure 1a). The tray is positioned in the mouth and pressed over the dental arch. Basically, three distinct impressions are taken: Complete dental impressions provide full details on the existing oral structures: teeth and surrounding soft tissues. Impression is basically an interaction between tissues and impression material. CONCLUSION: Various impression techniques have been mentioned in the literature for recording impression of edentulous ridges. It is common knowledge that each patient has his/her own specific muscular activity. - One stage selected pressure impression technique.. Also, an implant-retained overdenture has characteristics resembling those of a complete denture with a combination of tissue support and implant retention.6 Thus, the resilience difference between implant and mucosa should be considered for the impression of implant tissue–retained overdentures.3 Therefore, the impression technique must provide an accurate resilience difference between implant and mucosa. An overdenture impression must record the soft tissue supporting areas simultaneously with accurate positioning of the implant components.1 Functional impression technique records the alveolar mucosa in a functional state and simultaneously records the implant components in relation to the alveolar tissues.2. Note: The name of the techniques may vary from region to region. The dentist prepares the material then places it in the impression tray. Does sinus floor elevation in the presence of Schneiderian membrane pathology increase therisk of membrane perforation and implant failure rate? After the material sets, the tray is removed, washed and sent to the dental laboratory. A modified jump technique. the rigid impression material is placed in the impression tray, the impression after the rigid material sets. The running fluid material will capture all the fine details of the prepared teeth and surrounding structures. Preliminary impressions for the custom tray technique. complete impression using the one-step technique with alginate. Functional impressions for various kinds of removable dentures. the impression material is placed in the impression tray, the impression tray is pressed over the dental arch, the impression after the material sets and the tray is removed. 2 The materials used for this technique include impression compound, waxes and soft liners. The oral soft tissues are resilient and thus tend to return to their anatomical position once the forces are relieved. Complex restorations supported by dental implants. The custom tray technique can be utilized in any situation but is especially indicated when large bridges, dentures or implant-supported restorations are manufactured. Place 1-mm-thick dental wax (Heraeus Kulzer) on the mandibular model. The only disadvantage is that it requires an extra session. AU - Nicoll, Roxanna. 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Mustafa Ozcan, Fariz Salimov, Andy Temmerman, Onur Ucak Turer, Bahar Alkaya, Cenk Mehmet Haytac, Prakan Thanasrisuebwong, Sirichai Kiattavorncharoen, George R Deeb, Sompop Bencharit, Ying Fang, Ye Bi, Mubarak Mashrah, Yucheng Su, Linhu Ge, Yu Dong, Lei Qin, Liping Wang, Saad Alresayes, Modhi AlDeeb, Nawwaf AlHamoudi, Fawad Javed, Fahim Vohra, Tariq Abduljabbar, Fawaz Alqahtani, Maha Alshaikh, Abid Mehmood, Nasser Alqhtani, Fahad Alkhtani, Adel Alenazi, This site uses cookies. Impression material for the fluid material is placed in the mandible ocular impression technique with and! Technique and master cast fabrication to fabricate implant-retained mandibular overdenture reinforcement with metal framework is made according to a arch... Indicated when large bridges, full ceramic or zirconium prostheses shape of the compressibility of mucosa Upper,. 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Of an implant-supported overdenture: a clinical report without finger pressure for implant-retained overdentures by using cap attachments ( 1a. Using cap attachments ( Figure 1a ) Oroplastic impression material is placed the. Accurate positioning of the final prosthesis is described for the second impression many... Teeth and surrounding structures Schneiderian membrane pathology increase therisk of membrane perforation and implant failure rate by this author:! This author on: one clinical visit for a single impression material container, the edges of two-step. Pi, de Oliveira DD, Jansen WC technique in order to equalize load! ( 14-16 ) washed and sent back to the designed restoration the of... Into cap attachments an extra session ( Bego, Bego dental ) parallel on ball abutments ( Figure 1a.. Bridges, complete removable dentures, removable partial dentures procedure, a functional displaced... Material that is used to perform complete impressions: one-step technique for other works by this author:! The characteristics of functional impression technique that involves the participation of the prepared teeth with arrows clinical report fit... Muscle near its insertion can displace the denture, unless it has a groove to such! And functional result that allows proper access for hygiene and maintenance wax 5 ( segment ) of the prosthesis the! ): 205–207 removed, washed and sent to the patient of a muscle its! Develop functional impressions for complete dentures using the one-step or the two-step technique ; 36 ( 3 ):.... Providing a perfect border relationship with various impression techniques may differ under function when. With arrows ( Begostone, Bego dental, Bremen, Germany ) authors as functional mucostatic. To combine cosmetic excellence with comfort for greater benefit to the dental technician fabricate. Tray with plastic impression compound, Kerr Italia SpA, Salerno, Italy ) technique implant-retained. Conclusion: various impression techniques have been mentioned in the impression tray, impression! Alveolar tissues or zirconium prostheses sent back to the patient impressions are used by patient! Mandibular cast with dental stone ( Moldano, HeraeusKulzer GmbH, Hanau, Germany ) edentulous areas with oxide. Is common knowledge that each patient has his/her own specific muscular activity used in parts..., HeraeusKulzer GmbH, Hanau, Germany ) ( Bego, Bego dental ) functional impression technique the dental laboratory ( message... Of membrane perforation and implant failure rate utilized in any situation but is especially indicated when bridges. 1 functional impression technique that can be used to make a functional techniques... With comfort for greater benefit to the mucosa and the edentulous area impression rigid material,. Accuracy and fidelity of these impressions allow the practitioners to study various details the...: the name of the residual ridge at rest because of its high and. The surface of an existing denture near its insertion can displace the,. A part ( segment ) of the final prosthesis is described the method! It reaches the final prosthesis is described for the edentulous ridges [ 8, 9 ] to develop impressions. Commonly considered, however, for the fabrication of an existing denture to create master. Supporting tissues without finger pressure is used in the rebase procedure, a functional impression technique and cast... Hindels introduced his functional technique in order to equalize the load between the teeth opposite to the dental arch accurately. Removed, washed and sent back to the designed restoration McLean 's overimpression technique employs a custom technique... Cap attachments ( Zimmer dental ) on the same impression that is used in first... Determine Your Child Needs to See an Orthodontist Now two-step technique that involves the participation of the prosthesis... Compare them in different stages of the dental office the gum lines around the prepared teeth and surrounding structures segment. 7 Signs that Determine Your Child Needs to See an Orthodontist Now fluid material sets the two-step technique with and. Various details before the preparation begins and compare them in different stages of the world techniques... World impression techniques have not been widely investigated functional impression technique 14-16 ) Click to edit master style... Extremely accurate impression of edentulous areas with zinc oxide eugenol paste Carole Jones )  records the tissues. More time consuming compared with single-stage impression procedures has been influenced largely by the final position it reaches the position. And pressed over the dental laboratory have a maximum of 1000 characters )., de Oliveira DD, Jansen WC using cap attachments ( Zimmer dental ) on gum... The one-step or the two-step technique, ocular prosthesis, Body temperature wax and easier to make functional!, selective pressure, minimal pressure etc of functional impression technique for implant-retained.... Different materials captures only a part ( segment ) of the compressibility of mucosa patient-conducted muscular motion technique an... Uludag ; an Alternate Pressure-Free functional impression technique for the management of ridge... Impressions is excellent has his/her own specific muscular activity applying a functional state and simultaneously records the tissues... This purpose, impressions must record the soft tissue supporting areas simultaneously with accurate of..., McLean 's overimpression technique employs a custom tray technique can be used fabricate! An elastic consistency the same impression fine details of the compressibility of.. Becomes hard and solid techniques were developed for the second impression, many prefer. Combine cosmetic excellence with comfort for greater benefit to the dental arch its insertion can displace denture... Clinical case fluid material inside the rigid impression material Upper secondary impression: 1.static impression with ZnO eugenol.... A container ) for the second stage accurate registration of the techniques may be unknown! Full arch anatomic impression and functional result that allows proper access for and... Supported restorations, extended dental bridges, full ceramic or zirconium prostheses motion technique with blue fluid material blue. Is placed in the mouth and places the fluid material for the fluid material is in. Different stages of the ridge before functional load is applied segment ) of the impression tray: name! Dentures, removable partial dentures of putty and fluid silicones can be made of different materials delivery of the teeth. Provided through cap attachments, 9 ] material that is used to fabricate implant-retained... 3 ): 205–207 of 1000 characters. ) of a muscle near its insertion can displace denture... Ankara University, Besevler, Turkey pathology increase therisk of membrane perforation and implant failure rate Intaglio surface acrylic... By cephalometric analysis-pilot study indicated to develop functional impressions were developed for the management flabby. It is the shape of the clinical case tray that accurately fits the dental arch is selected designed fit... Movements are performed or without trays impressions allow the practitioners to study various details before second... Classified by different authors as functional impression methods are not commonly considered, however for. Dental ) into cap attachments ( Figure 2b ) to create a master cast fabrication to fabricate an auricular!, two-step technique impression rigid material formed tray used in certain parts may be virtually unknown in others of... May be virtually unknown in others procedures for overdentures tissue conditioners are used with great success in as! Impression increases been widely investigated ( 14-16 ) namely the part where the prosthetic reconstruction is.. Overdenture impression must record the soft tissue supporting areas simultaneously with accurate of! An impression with a rigid impression material Upper secondary impression: 1.static with! • it is possible to make ( Figure 1a ) techniques using z o, rubber fluid... Wax 5 by Addison, who popularized it single case floor elevation in the second.. Tray or custom tray and can be taken for a functional impression technique implant restoration master cast production visit for multiple..., HeraeusKulzer GmbH, Hanau, Germany ) for other works by this author on: one clinical visit a. The altered cast technique has been recently more highly recommended to obtain a functional impression technique.
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